- Menthae Herba
|Medicinal Group||Wind-heat dispersing medicinal|
Dried aerial part of Mentha haplocalyx Briq (Fam. Labiatae)
|Nature and Flavors||pungent; cool|
|Meridian Affinity||Liver, Lung|
To expel wind-heat from the head and eyes, and outthrust rashes.
Headache in influenza, upper respiratory infection and other epidemic febrile diseases at the initial stage; inflammation of eyes, sore throat, ulcers in the mouth; rubella measles; discomfort and distension in the chest and hypochondriac regions
- Dietary administration of peppermint promotes growth performance and increases the main humoral immune parameters. 
- Peppermint oil is a safe and effective short-term treatment for irritable bowel syndrome. 
- A novel peppermint oil formulation designed for sustained release in the small intestine is a safe, effective treatment capable of providing rapid relief of Irritable Bowel Syndrome symptoms.
- Peppermint oil is effective in reliving only abdominal pain in diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome transiently.
- Peppermint spirits may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of postoperative nausea.
- Topical application of peppermint oil may be effective in the treatment of tension headache.
- Peppermint oil reduces intragastric pressure, proximal phasic contractility, and appetite, with negligible effects on gastric sensitivity, tone, accommodation, and nutrient tolerance in health.
- A 4 weeks treatment with peppermint oil improves abdominal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.
- Peppermint oil was useful as an antispasmodic during esophagogastroduodenoscopy, especially for elderly patients.
- Peppermint gel has a calming and numbing effect, which has been used to relieve skin irritations, effectively prevents nipple crack of breastfeeding women (10)
- Aromatherapy with peppermint reduces the perceived severity of postoperative nausea (11)
- Peppermint is an aromatic herb that is classified as a carminative that can relieve stomach and intestinal disorders and relieve nausea and vomiting (12)
Contraindicated in spontaneous sweating due to weakness in the exterior
Lipid peroxidation and uterine damage [13,14]. Toxicity in cultured human hepatoma cells 
- Adel M, Safari R, Pourgholam R, Zorriehzahra J, Esteban MÁ. (2015). Dietary peppermint (Mentha piperita) extracts promote growth performance and increase the main humoral immune parameters (both at mucosal and systemic level) of Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius Kessler, 1877). Fish Shellfish Immunol. , 47(1):623-9. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2015.10.005. Epub 2015 Oct 9.
- Khanna R, MacDonald JK, Levesque BG. (2014). Peppermint oil for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Gastroenterol. , 48(6):505-12. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0b013e3182a88357.
- Cash BD, Epstein MS, Shah SM. (2016). A Novel Delivery System of Peppermint Oil Is an Effective Therapy for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms. Dig Dis Sci. , 61(2):560-71. doi: 10.1007/s10620-015-3858-7. Epub 2015 Aug 29.
- Alam MS, Roy PK, Miah AR, Mollick SH, Khan MR, Mahmud MC, Khatun S. (2013). Efficacy of Peppermint oil in diarrhea predominant IBS - a double blind randomized placebo - controlled study. Mymensingh Med J. , 22(1):27-30.
- Lane B, Cannella K, Bowen C, Copelan D, Nteff G, Barnes K, Poudevigne M, Lawson J. ( 2012). Examination of the effectiveness of peppermint aromatherapy on nausea in women post C-section. J Holist Nurs. , 30(2):90-104; quiz 105-6. doi: 10.1177/0898010111423419. Epub 2011 Oct 27.
- Kligler B, Chaudhary S. (2007). Peppermint oil. Am Fam Physician. , 75(7):1027-30.
- Papathanasopoulos A, Rotondo A, Janssen P, Boesmans W, Farré R, Vanden Berghe P, Tack J. (2013). Effect of acute peppermint oil administration on gastric sensorimotor function and nutrient tolerance in health. Neurogastroenterol Motil. , 25(4):e263-71. doi: 10.1111/nmo.12102. Epub 2013 Mar 12.
- Cappello G, Spezzaferro M, Grossi L, Manzoli L, Marzio L. (2007). Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Dig Liver Dis. , 39(6):530-6. Epub 2007 Apr 8.
- Imagawa A, Hata H, Nakatsu M, Yoshida Y, Takeuchi K, Inokuchi T, Imada T, Kohno Y, Takahara M, Matsumoto K, Miyatake H, Yagi S, Ando M, Hirohata M, Fujiki S, Takenaka R. ( 2012). Peppermint oil solution is useful as an antispasmodic drug for esophagogastroduodenoscopy, especially for elderly patients. Dig Dis Sci. , 57(9):2379-84. doi: 10.1007/s10620-012-2194-4. Epub 2012 May 6.
- Melli M, Rashidi M, Nokhoodchi A, Taqavi S, Farzadi L, Sadaghat K, Tahmasebi Z, Sheshvan M. (2007) A randomized trial of peppermint gel, lanolin ointment, and placebo gel to prevent nipple crack in primiparous breastfeeding women. Med Sci Monit 13(9):406-411
- Anderson, L. A., & Gross, J. B. (2004). Aromatherapy with peppermint, isopropyl alcohol, or placebo is equally effective in relieving postoperative
- Fundukian, L. J. (Ed.). (2009). The Gale encyclopedia of alternative medicine (2nd ed.), 3, 1029-1771.
- Guney M, Oral B, Karahanli N, Mungan T, Akdogan M (2006) The effect of Mentha spicata Labiatae on uterine tissue in rats. Toxicol.Ind.Health, 22, 8, 343-348.
- Akdogan M, Ozguner M, Aydin G, Gokalp O (2004) Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita Labiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats. Hum.Exp.Toxicol., 23, 1, 21-28.
- Vo LT, Chan D, King RG (2003) Investigation of the effects of peppermint oil and valerian on rat liver and cultured human liver cells. Clin.Exp.Pharmacol.Physiol., 30, 10, 799-804.
- 楊倩、孫蓉 (2009)。<與功效和物質基礎相關的薄荷毒性研究進展>。中國藥物警戒，7。